# Cardiac Output

## What Is Cardiac Output?

In order for your body to function properly, the heart needs to pump enough blood at a vital rate so that enough oxygen and nutrients are supplied to the brain and other vital organs. This continuous supply of oxygen is very important as it makes sure that the person can perform all bodily functions properly.

So, what is Cardiac Output exactly? It is the amount of blood your heart can pump per minute. If you are looking for an equation for cardiac output then here it is:

Cardiac Output: Stroke Volume*Heart Rate

Index:

• Stroke Volume: The amount of blood your heart pumps per minute
• Heart Rate: The number of time your heart peats per minute

## How To Calculate Cardiac Output?

Calculating the Cardiac Output is not that hard, you just have to add some values into the calculator and then get the results. Just follow the steps mentioned for a successful calculation.

In the first step, you have to add your HBG, these are also known as your hemoglobin (Blood Test Result). The normal value for HGB should be from 13.8 to 17.2 g/dL (Men) and 12.1 to 15.1 g/dL (Women).

In the second step, you have to add your SaO2 levels, these are also known as oxygen saturation levels. They should be normally between 95%-100%, when it drops below 90% you should be concerned.

In the third step, you have to add your SvO2 levels, these are also known as mixed venous oxygen saturation. They should be normally around 60%-80%.

In the fourth step, you have to add your body surface area, also known as BSA. The average adult BSA is 1.7 m2.

If you add all of these figures correctly then you can easily calculate your cardiac output without any kind of problems.

## Cardiac Output Formula (Fick Equation)

Cardiac Output (Fick) in L/min = (135 ml O2/min/M2*BSA)/(13*Hgb*(SaO2-SvO2))

This online cardiology calculator helps you dynamically to calculate the Fick Principle easily.

## How Much Is A Normal Cardiac Output?

If we talk about a normal cardiac output in litres then a person should be able to pump about 5-6 litres while resting.

## When Is A Higher Cardiac Output Needed?

During exercise and other intense movements, the body needs a higher cardiac output. That is because the muscles need extra oxygen than normal to function properly. When the heart beats faster, more blood is supplied to the body because there is a need for it.

## References

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cardiac_output

https://www.omnicalculator.com/health/cardiac-output

https://www.uofmhealth.org/health-library/tx4080abc